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Are You Ready for Your Annual Audit?

Dec 2, 2022

It’s that time of the year again!  There are some best practices to follow to avoid pitfalls and issues while undergoing your year-end audit. Implementing these best practices will enhance the value your organization receives from the audit process and will help you comfortably meet your deadline for distributing audited financial statements to your investors and other users.  With organizations around the world (including the audit firm you work with) still navigating their return to office strategy, there is a high probability that a significant amount of audit work will be performed remotely or under a hybrid work environment, which demands continued investment in technology and effort toward digitizing processes involving manual controls or processes that lead to manual or paper audit trails.  

Management’s Responsibility

It is management’s responsibility to prepare financial statements and to design, implement and maintain internal controls relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements.  Management’s first step is to have an in-house accounting team capable of achieving effective financial reporting which enables management to prepare financial statements that are fairly presented.  While management can alternatively outsource the accounting function to a third-party service provider (for example, an external fund administrator) who can assist with preparation of the financial statements, it is important to keep in mind that management retains responsibility for the financial statements.   

Scheduling a Planning Meeting with Your Auditor

If you haven’t already set up a planning meeting with your auditor, set it up now to discuss and provide an update to your auditor about what has occurred during the year.  Matters of interest to your auditor include amendments to the partnership agreement and other fund documents, capital activity, fund performance, any new or private investments, and any other notable changes that occurred during the year in your operations as well as your internal controls due to remote or hybrid work environment.  Expected timing of audit fieldwork and audit completion should also be discussed at the audit planning meeting. If you have outsourced your accounting function to an external fund administrator, plan ahead so the expected timing fits into their schedule.

Ask your auditors if they are aware of any new accounting pronouncements that are applicable to you that you should consider while preparing your annual financial statements. For example, Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), referred to as ASC 842, is effective for calendar year privately held companies as of January 1, 2022. The main difference between the existing guidance on accounting for leases and ASU No. 2016-02 is that for operating leases with lease terms of more than 12 months, a lessee will be required to recognize (i) a lease liability, which is the lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments; and (ii) a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. ASC 842 should be of interest to asset managers who have entered into lease arrangements as well as to private equity and venture capital firms for its impact on portfolio companies. With adoption of the new leasing guidance, portfolio companies will be bringing off-balance sheet leases that were previously disclosed in financial statement footnotes onto the balance sheet as liabilities which could impact the liability to equity ratio. Private equity and venture capital firms should consider whether implementing ASC 842 has any impact on valuation of their portfolio holdings.   

In addition, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2022-03 in June 2022 clarifying fair value measurement of an equity security subject to contractual restrictions that prohibit the sale of an equity security. Certain new disclosure requirements were also introduced by ASU 2022-03. While these updates are not effective until fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023 for public entities and fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024 for other entities, early adoption is permitted.

Ask For the Auditor’s Year-End Request List (also known as the PBC or “Prepared by Client” list)

It is a standard practice for auditors to provide their clients with a list of items they will need to get the audit rolling. Ask your auditor to provide this list well in advance of your fiscal year-end. Knowing ahead of time about some of the schedules and documents your auditors are going to need will help you keep these items in mind when you are going through the process of your year-end close. Make sure you share the list with your external fund administrator and agree on the expected timing of any audit schedules that they can help prepare. Carefully consider each of the schedules you may be preparing for the auditors. If any of them are considerably time consuming for you or your external fund administrator to prepare, ask the auditors to explain why they need them. It is possible that they could get the same information from another resource.

For continuing or repeat audits, it is worth saving copies of the current-year schedules and documents you’ve submitted to your auditor for future reference. Make a note of the source within your accounting system, and the methods you have used, to extract specific customized reports that were part of the auditor’s current-year request list. In absence of significant changes in your business or operations, your auditor will most likely request those specific customized reports on an annual basis. Revisiting your notes from the prior-year audit will reduce your efforts in extracting those reports in the current year. This step is particularly helpful if you have had turnover in your accounting department and a new employee has taken over the responsibility of preparing and submitting information to your auditors.

Review the Schedules You Submit to Your Auditors

Before providing any of the requested schedules, documents, or back up to your auditor, check to make sure that the information agrees with your trial balance and/or internally prepared financial statements.  As an example, if you provide a schedule of partner contributions and withdrawals that does not reconcile to the corresponding amounts recorded in your trial balance, you will have opened up a whole can of worms. Even if you ultimately end up providing a corrected schedule that agrees to the trial balance, your auditors will want to know what changed and the reasons for the mismatch.  Any errors and/or reconciliations during the audit process add to the cost of the audit. Reviewing the audit schedules in advance can save you time during the audit and helps everyone focus on more important issues.    

Designate an Audit Point-Of-Contact

The audit schedules that you submit to your auditors provide a good data point for them to begin their audit.  The auditors will have additional questions and most likely need to talk to you and/or your external fund administrator throughout the audit process.  Designating an individual to handle all audit-related requests and to provide timely responses to all their questions will ensure an efficient audit.  A weekly or bi-weekly audit status meeting between management and auditors provides touch points to discuss progress and resolve any issues identified during the audit.  

Do Not Wait to Send Bank, Custody, and Other Audit Confirmations

It is standard procedure for auditors to request confirmations from banks on account balances on all significant cash accounts. Other audit areas involving the confirmation process include investments and cash held at a qualified custodian, private investments (whether or not held at a qualified custodian), and capital activity including contributions, withdrawals and transfers of interests.  Auditors are required to transmit the confirmation requests themselves directly to the bank, custodian or investor and in turn, the auditors must receive the confirmation reply directly from those parties in order for it to be valid.  When inaccurate balances or incorrect information are provided on the audit confirmation, someone has to spend the time following up to get corrected information.  The best chance at improving the accuracy of your confirmations is to prepare them as close to the confirmation date as possible.  So if your auditor needs a confirmation as of December 31, make sure that you have either signed any paper confirmations, or given electronic approval before this date.  The approved confirmation requests need to go out in the first week of January or as close to the year-end as possible. 

Ask If You Can Have Testing Selections in Advance or If the Auditor Can Perform Interim Testing

Auditors are required to include some element of “surprise” in their audit, so they are unable to tell you in advance absolutely everything that they plan to test. However, you can ask if there are any tests or testing selections that can be done ahead of time. Most accounting firms perform interim work covering transactions occurring in the first three quarters of the year. Purchase and sale of investments, realized gains and losses on sale of investments, valuation of private investments, and capital activity are the most common audit areas that get covered during interim. Interim procedures help avoid surprises at year-end as they provide your independent auditor an opportunity to look at your accounting records and provide recommendations way before the chaos of year-end hits you.  

Private Investments

Valuation of private investments (referred to as level 3 investments) is of critical importance to investors and is often an area that is closely looked at by auditors and their valuation specialists due to the measurement uncertainty and degree of judgment inherent in valuing such investments.

Most auditors expect management to prepare a comprehensive year-end valuation package for all private investments. The valuation package should provide a comprehensive write-up for each private investment being valued, including references to applicable support and documentation included within the valuation package. Clearly explain within the valuation package your rationale for any specific factors such as discounts due to lack of marketability or lack of control inputs. Providing rationale for any changes in valuation methodology or inputs that have changed from prior valuation periods helps avoid follow up questions from your auditors.

Management can utilize the accounting and valuation guide published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (“AICPA”) as a resource while preparing their private investments valuation package. This guide provides guidance and illustrations for preparers of financial statements, independent auditors, and valuation specialists regarding the accounting for and valuation of portfolio company investments of venture capital funds, private equity funds and other investment companies. The goal of AICPA’s guide is to provide user-friendly guidance with case studies that can be used to reason through real-life situations faced by fund managers.


Preparation for a successful annual audit requires ongoing efforts from management to establish and maintain a financial reporting system that is capable of generating accurate and reliable financial information throughout the period covered by the audit. The audit process is a two-way street requiring management and their auditors to fulfil their respective responsibilities. Plan ahead and implement best practices discussed above for a successful annual audit.

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Vikram Deshpande

Vikram Desphande provides a range of services including audits of hedge funds, private equity funds and venture capital funds.

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