U.S. Treasury's Financial Stability Plan

To address the financial crisis, the Treasury's Financial Stability Plan (FSP) is designed to attack the U.S. credit crisis on all fronts with what is referred to as "a full arsenal of financial tools and the resources commensurate to the depth of the problem." To be successful, FSP must address the uncertainty, troubled assets and capital constraints of the U.S. financial institutions as well as the frozen secondary markets that have been the source of around half of the U.S. credit market for everything from small business loans to auto loans. The key elements of the FSP follow:

  • Financial Stability Trust
    • A Comprehensive Stress Test for Major Banks
    • Increased Balance Sheet Transparency and Disclosure
    • Capital Assistance Program 
  • Public-Private Investment Fund ($500 Billion - $1 Trillion)
  • Consumer and Business Lending Initiative (Up to $1 Trillion)
  • Transparency and Accountability Agenda
  • Affordable Housing Support and Foreclosure Prevention Plan
  • A small Business and Community Lending Initiative
  • Financial Stability Trust: A key aspect of the Financial Stability Plan is an effort to strengthen financial institutions so that they have the ability to support recovery. This Financial Stability Trust includes:
    • A Comprehensive Stress Test: A Forward Looking Assessment of What Banks Need to Keep Lending Even Through a Severe Economic Downturn: Today, uncertainty about the real value of distressed assets and the ability of borrowers to repay loans as well as uncertainty as to whether some financial institutions have the capital required to weather a continued decline in the economy have caused both a dramatic slowdown in lending and a decline in the confidence required for the private sector to make much needed equity investments in major financial institutions.
    • Capital Assistance Program: While banks will be encouraged to access private markets to raise any additional capital needed to establish a buffer, a financial institution that has undergone a comprehensive "stress test" will have access to a Treasury provided "capital buffer" to help absorb losses and serve as a bridge to receiving increased private capital. While most banks have strong capital positions, the Financial Stability Trust will provide a capital buffer that will: Operate as a form of "contingent equity" to ensure firms the capital strength to preserve or increase lending in a worse than expected economic downturn. Firms will receive a preferred security investment from Treasury in convertible securities that they can convert into common equity if needed to preserve lending in a worse-than-expected economic environment. This convertible preferred security will carry a dividend to be specified later and a conversion price set at a modest discount from the prevailing level of the institution's stock price as of February 9, 2009. Banking institutions with consolidated assets below $100 billion will also be eligible to obtain capital from the CAP after a supervisory review.
    • Financial Stability Trust: Any capital investments made by Treasury under the CAP will be placed in a separate entity – the Financial Stability Trust – set up to manage the government's investments in U.S. financial institutions.
  • Public-Private Investment Fund: One aspect of the Treasury's "full arsenal approach" is the need to provide greater means for financial institutions to cleanse their balance sheets of what are often referred to as "toxic" assets. Many proposals designed to achieve this are complicated both by their sole reliance on public purchasing and the difficulties in pricing assets. Working together in partnership with the FDIC and the Federal Reserve, the Treasury Department will initiate a Public-Private Investment Fund.
    • Public-Private Capital: This new program will be designed with a public-private financing component, which could involve putting public or private capital side-by-side and using public financing to leverage private capital on an initial scale of up to $500 billion, with the potential to expand up to $1 trillion.
    • Private Sector Pricing of Assets: Because the new program is designed to bring private sector equity contributions to make large-scale asset purchases, it not only minimizes public capital and maximizes private capital: it allows private sector buyers to determine the price for current troubled and previously illiquid assets.
  • Consumer & Business Lending Initiative – Up to $1 Trillion: Addressing the U.S. credit crisis on all fronts means going beyond simply dealing with banks. While the intricacies of secondary markets and securitization – the bundling together and selling of loans – may be complex, they account for almost half of the credit going to Main Street as well as Wall Street. When banks making loans for small businesses, commercial real estate or autos are able to bundle and sell those loans into a vibrant and liquid secondary market, it instantly recycles money back to financial institutions to make additional loans to other worthy borrowers. When those markets freeze up, the impact on lending for consumers and businesses – small and large – can be devastating. Unable to sell loans into secondary markets, lenders freeze up, leading those seeking credit like car loans to face exorbitant rates. Between 2006 and 2008, there was a net $1.2 trillion decline in securitized lending (outside of the GSEs) in these markets. That is why a core component of the Financial Stability Plan is:
    • An Expansion Up to $1 Trillion: This joint initiative with the Federal Reserve builds off, broadens and expands the resources of the previously announced but not yet implemented Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF). The Consumer & Business Lending initiative will support the purchase of loans by providing the financing to private investors to help unfreeze and lower interest rates for auto, small business, credit card and other consumer and business credit. Previously, Treasury was to use $20 billion to leverage $200 billion of lending from the Federal Reserve. The Financial Stability Plan will dramatically increase the size by using $100 billion to leverage up to $1 trillion and kick start lending by focusing on new loans.
    • Protecting Taxpayer Resources by Limiting Purchases to Newly Packaged AAA Loans: Because these are the highest quality portion of any security – the first ones to be paid – we will be able to best protect against taxpayer losses and efficiently leverage taxpayer money to support a large flow of credit to these sectors.
    • Expand Reach – Including Commercial Real Estate: The Consumer & Business Lending Initiative will expand the initial reach of the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility to now include commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS). In addition, the Treasury will continue to consult with the Federal Reserve regarding possible further expansion of the TALF program to include other asset classes, such as non-Agency residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) and assets collateralized by corporate debt.
  • New Era of Transparency, Accountability, Monitoring and Conditions: A major source of public frustration with the initial deployment of the first $350 billion of TARP funds was a lack of accountability or transparency as to whether assistance was being provided solely for the public interest and a stronger economy, rather than the private gain of shareholders, bondholders or executives. Going forward, the Financial Stability Plan will call for greater transparency, accountability and conditionality with tougher standards for firms receiving exceptional assistance. These will be the new standards going forward and are not retroactive. These stronger monitoring conditions were a result of recommendations made by formal oversight groups – the Congressional Oversight Panel, the Special Inspector General, and the Government Accountability Office – as well as Congressional committees charged with oversight of the banking system.


  • Affordable Housing Support and Foreclosure Prevention: There is bipartisan agreement today that stemming foreclosures and restructuring troubled mortgages will help slow the downward spiral harming financial institutions and the real American economy. Many Congressional leaders, housing advocates, and ordinary citizens have been disappointed that the TARP was not aimed at ending the foreclosure crisis. The Treasury will soon be announcing a comprehensive plan that builds on the work of Congressional leaders and the FDIC. Among other things the Treasury plan will:
    • Drive Down Overall Mortgage Rates: The Treasury Department and the Federal Reserve remain committed to expand as necessary the current effort by the Federal Reserve to help drive down mortgage rates – freeing up funds for working families – through continuation of its efforts to spend as much as $600 billion for purchasing of GSE mortgage-backed securities and GSE debt.
    • Commit $50 Billion to Prevent Avoidable Foreclosures of owner-occupied middle class homes by helping to reduce monthly payments in line with prudent underwriting and long-term loan performance.
    • Help Bring Order and Consistency to the various efforts to address the foreclosure crisis by establishing loan modification guidelines and standards for government and private programs.
    • Require All Financial Stability Plan Recipients to Participate in Foreclosure Mitigation Plans consistent with Treasury guidance.
  • Small Business and Community Lending Initiative: Few aspects of the current financial crisis have created more resentment than the specter of hardworking entrepreneurs and small business owners seeing their companies hurt and even bankrupt because of a squeeze on credit they played no role in creating. Currently, the increased capital constraints of banks, the inability to sell SBA loans on the secondary market and a weakening economy have combined to dramatically reduce SBA lending at the very time our economy cannot afford to deny credit to any entrepreneur with the potential to create jobs and expand markets.
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